Cell is the structural and functional unit of a living organism. It is the simplest, the smallest and basic unit of life.

The nucleus is the largest organelle of the cell. The nucleus appears to be dense, spherical organelle. It occupies about 10% of the total volume of the cell. It is enveloped in a structure called the nuclear membrane also know as nuclear sac or nuclear envelope.

-It controls all life activities of the cell
-It stores hereditary information as it contains DNA inside chromosomes which take part in cell division.

Mitochondrion is bounded by two membranes, the outer one being separated from the inner one by a narrow space, the intermembrenal space. The inner membrane is folded inwards into a number of shelf-like cristae, which has a large surface area. Tucked into the matrix side of the inner membrane are elementary particles; each particle consists of a head piece, stalk and base. At the base of the particle, and extending through the inner membrane, are the components of the respiratory chain itself.
Mitochondrial DNA,RNA and 70s ribosomes are also present in the Mitochondrion.
Functions: It is described as the power-house of the cell. They are sites of respiration or where energy is released from simple sugar.


-Contractile vacuole
-It has flagellum for movement
-Possession of eye spot

Plant-like feature:
-Possession of chloroplast
-Possession of pyrenoids


(i)pollination: it is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the mature stigma of the same flower or another flower of the same species
(ii)dispersal: it is the transfer of a fruit or seed from the parent plant to other places, where the seed may germinate.
(iii)competition: it is the struggle by living organism for available resources such as mineral salts,water,space,sunlight,food,mates etc in their environment.

-they have scent
-nectar is present
-their flowers are conspicuous
-their flowers are large-sized
-their flowers are brightly-coloured

essential parts:
non-essential parts:


-they are edible
-they have sticky juice
-they have seed or seeds

-intra-specific competition
-inter-specific competition


-fore brain
-mid brain
-hind brain

(i)cerebrum:receives impulse from sense organs and send impulse to muscles and glands as the centre of intelligence, reasoning and all voluntary actions.
(ii)hypothalamus:regulates the temperature and water content of the blood
(iii)medulla oblogata:regulates unconscious process such as breathing,heart beat, dilation and contraction of arteries and movements of the intestine.


tactic movement is the movement of the entire organism in response to a stimulus

phototaxis: the movement of an entire organism to response to light :eg Amoeba is negatively phototactic
hydrotaxis: this is the movement of an entire organism in response to water e.g amoeba is positively phototactic
chemotaxis:the movement of an entire organism in response to chemical e.g amoeba is negatively chemotactic


-Possession of claws
-Small body size
-Long limbs
-Strong tails

-For reproductive activities
-For nutrition and survival
-It serves as habitat for aquatic tropical forest organisms
-For distribution of organism
-For predative activities

Temperature in a given ecosystem can be determined through the means of maximum-minimum thermometer. The minimum temperature of the day is recorded using thermometer and done as well for maximum temperature. The average temperature is found by using the formula, Minimum+Maximum/2.
The measurement is repeated over time to establish the temperature of the given ecosystem.

-Charles Darwin
-Jean Lamarck

-Geographical distribution
-Fossil records
-Comparative anatomy
-Vestigial organs


It is the entire activities or responsibility carried out in an office by
administrator, secretaries or office workers in order to promote
effective running of an organization.
-To promote acquisition of skills for handling information in an office
-To create a people centered working environment
-To effectively integrate an office into the social environment
-To develop capacity for professionalism in the discharge of office
-To emphasize principle that will promote business growth and
it help workers to be productive at work
It provide platform for effective management that lead to business
It promote management principle that will guarantee the survival of an
It is an administrative center
It is a coordinating center
It is a control center
It is a service center
It is a business information center
Economic to practice many use a single room the cost of furnishing
office for each single office is reduced. It save cost for an
Personal relationship: it make it possible for people in the same office
to relate with one another
Easy supervisor: supervisor office find it easy to check easily on all the
workers at the same time
It makes it possible for the entire employees of an organization to be
easily trained while they are sited on their seat
It is easy to re-arrange an open office
Staple: is an office machine used in fixing wire staples into paper so as
to hold the paper of a document together
Franking machine: it is used in printing postage stamp impression on an
envelope or the strip of a paper
Addressing machine: is used in reprinting address on a card invoice,
statement or circular
Perforator: it is know as a punch. It is used in creating holes on paper
so as to facilitate the filing of such into the file
Envelop sealing machine: is used in moistening the gum and sealing the
flaps on an envelope
Standing order: this is a method of payment where a customer instruct
the bank to regularly pay a sum of money on he/her behalf to an
individual or business organization e.g PHCH bills, water bills, insurance
premiums etc
Mail transfer: is used to make transfer into foreign account. It involve
a customer presenting the bill to his / her banker completing the
necessary forms, indicate the account number to be debited or pay cash
over the counter
Credit transfer: this is where money is transfer from the account of a
debtor to the account of a creditor without the insurance of individual
cheque. It make it possible for a customerrest system. Wages to pay
money bills at once. it is a preferred method of paying staff salaries.
Cash payment: business transfer actions of small volume are usually paid
directly in cash such payment in must business are made through the
cash voucher using the impress system. Wages and salaries of casual
worker may also be paid using cash.
Payment through post office: an individual or organization can pay
bthrough the post office using, postale or money ,orders. These make it
possible for people to transfer money from one place to another
without using cash or bank note.
Gross pay is the addition of basic salary with other allowances
accruable to an employees together without deducting any tax or other
deduction while
Net pay is the addition of basic salary with other allowance accruable
to an employee together and deduct ,other deductions including tax. It is
the take home pay of an employee.
(a) Proforma invoice: it is an invoice that is usually submitted before
goods are dispatched as a polite request for payment to be made in
advance when a seller is not willing to sell on credit and to show the
goods. If the goods are retuned, it becomes an ordinary invoice.
(b) letter of inquiry: it is a written document and issued by an
organization to a manufacturer, dealer or supplier of a product that
they want to buy. The organization state the specification of product
that they want to buy and enqjuire to know whether the products are
available or not.
(c) Debit note: it is raised when a customer account needs to be
debited. When an invoice or a bill is mistakenly raised for a customer
such that the customer is undercharged, a debit note is raised to
correct b the mistake. That is a debit note indicate the new amount
raised have been debited to the customers account.
(d)Credit note: these are times when the account of purchaser is over
charged or damage goods returned or goods are short in supply or agreed
discount not given. When any of these error occur, there will be need to
reduce the original value on the invoice. To do this a credit note is
raised for the customer indicating that the amount raised on the
customer has been credited to his / her account
(e) Advice note: it is a document sent by the supplier to the buyer,
informing him of the means which the listed goods were dispatched an
the means of transportation employed. It is normally sent to reach the
purchase ahead of the goods which are sent through the rail. It will
provide information on when and where to expect the goods sent.

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